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£79 3.4 Outline the hazards, risks and controls available for safe containment of hydrocarbons offshore and onshore
Management of international oil and gas operational safety
4.1 Unit IOG1
On completion of this element, candidates should be able to demonstrate understanding of the content through the application of knowledge to familiar and unfamiliar situations. In particular they should be able to:
3.1 Outline types of failure modes that may lead to loss of containment from hydrocarbons
3.2 Outline types of failures that may lead to loss of containment from hydrocarbons
3.3 Outline the controls available to maintain safety critical equipment
3.4 Outline the hazards, risks and controls available for safe containment of hydrocarbons offshore and onshore
3.5 Outline the fire hazards, risks and controls relating to hydrocarbons
3.6 Outline the hazards, risks and controls available for operating boilers and furnaces.
3.1 Failure modes
Stress corrosion cracking
What is meant by a ‘safe operating envelope’
Use of knowledge of failure modes in initial design, process and safe-operating procedures
Failure of the annular rim (bottom rim of storage tank).
3.2 Other types of failures
3.3 Safety critical equipment controls
Emergency shutdown (ESD) equipment and systems Safety integrity levels (SIL) for instrumentation
Procedures for bypassing ESD – not to bypass without consideration of consequences – testing and logging
Blow down facilities, flare types
Closed and open drain headers, sewers, interceptors.
3.4 Safe containment of hydrocarbons
Hazards and risks including overfilling, effects of vacuum, overloading of foundations and failure modes for tank shells and associated pipe work Floating roof tanks (both external and internal roof types), landing the roof, sinking the roof and rim seal fires/failures
Fixed roof storage tanks, pressure and vacuum hazards
Bunding of storage tanks including volume and area sizing, construction and valving arrangements
Filling of tanks, overfilling/alarms/tanker connections
Pressurised / refrigerated vessels for LPG/LNG/CO2
Loss of containment and consequences
- jet fires, pool fires
- how hydrocarbon vapour clouds are generated and potential consequences
- BLEVE’s, CVCE’s and UVCE’s
- pipelines (eg, protection of pipelines, surveying, maintenance, security against arson and illegal tapping)
Decommissioning of plant and associated facilities (an overview)
Management of simultaneous operations.
3.5 Fire hazards, risks and controls
Fire triangle and the potential consequences:
- thermal radiation
Electrostatic charges, how they are generated and controlled
The identification of ignition sources
Zoning / hazardous area classification, and selection of suitable ignition protected electrical and mechanical equipment and critical control equipment.
3.6 Furnace and boiler operations
Use of furnace and boiler operations Hazards and risks of operating boilers and furnaces in particular those arising from loss of pilot gas supply, over firing, flame impingement firebox over pressure, low tube flow, control of tube metal temperature (TMT).
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