1.2 Analyse the importance of learning and development for organisations

OCR Unit Number 6, Level 4: Managing People and Performance in a business environment


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1.0 Understand workplace learning and development methods

1.1 Identify the benefits of a systematic approach to the management of learning, training and development

&

1.2 Analyse the importance of learning and development for organisations

Considering

Management of learning

  • Linked to organisational objectives
  • Skills and knowledge requirements
  • Needs analysis
  • Training design
  • Evaluation of learning - Donald Kirkpatrick

Evidence required:

1.1  Outline at least five benefits of taking a systematic approach to the management of learning and training and development, using examples from the workplace or research activities.

1.2  Examine examples of where organisations have managed people and performance including both successful and unsuccessful cases.

Analyse the evidence and explain the value of managing people and performance to an organisation. 

1.3 Analyse the nature of learning, development and learning behaviour

Considering

Approaches to learning:

  • Surface, deep and profound
  • Learning environments
  • Motivation for learning
  • Self-efficacy

Evidence required:

Investigate the characteristics of learning, development and learning behaviour and justify your reasons.

1.4 Characterise different methods of learning

Considering

Methods of learning

  • On/off the job
  • Training Courses
  • Experiences
  • Learning styles
  • Internal/external

Evidence required:

Describe the different methods of learning, including examples of each method and its advantages and disadvantages.

2 Understand the nature of individuals` influences on their behaviour at work

2.1 Explain the role of wants, needs and expectations in driving an individual`s motivation

&

2.2 Analyse the impact of intrinsic and extrinsic rewards on motivation and satisfaction and their relationship to morale

Considering

Motivation:

Intrinsic and extrinsic

Motivation theorists:

  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
  • MacGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y
  • Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory
  • Vroom’s Expectancy Theory
  • McClelland’s 3-Needs Theory
  • Adam’s Equality Theory

Evidence required:

  • Explain what is meant by intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, providing examples of each.
  • Explain how important morale is to individuals, teams and organisations.
  • Describe different motivation theories and investigate how they can be used to analyse the impact of intrinsic and extrinsic rewards on motivation and relationship. 
  • Use examples to demonstrate how they influence morale.

2.3 Explain the way in which abilities, aptitudes, personalities and perceptions affect individuals` behaviour

&

2.4 Evaluate the link between motivation, morale and workplace performance

Considering:

Morale:

  • Of individuals
  • Of teams
  • Of organisations
  • Relationship to motivation and efficiency/effectiveness

Behavioural influences:

  • Knowledge
  • Skills
  • Experience
  • Culture
  • Communication networks and components
  • Emotional intelligence
  • Leadership styles

Evidence required:

2.3 Explain, using your findings from assessment criteria 2.1 and 2.2 how an individual’s personality, perceptions, abilities, attitudes and personality can affect their behaviour.

2.4 Research examples of the effects of motivation and morale on performance in the workplace.  Using examples from the workplace compare and contrast how any combination of motivation and morale can improve or damage performance. 

The findings must include a clear conclusion. 

3 Understand the concept of leadership and its influence on team working

3.1 Define leadership in terms of influence, people and situations

&

3.2 Evaluate different models and theories of leadership

Considering:

Leadership v management

Leadership styles:

  • Laisse Faire
  • Democratic
  • Autocratic

Leadership models andtheories:

  • Trait Approach
  • Behavioural Approach
  • Action Centred Leadership – John Adair
  • Situational Leadership – Paul Hersey
  • Contingency Approach – Fayol and Taylor
  • Servant leadership

Evidence required:

3.1 Describe, in detail, the meaning of leadership and leadership styles especially in terms of:

•           influence

•           people

•           different situations.

3.2 Research at least three models and theories of leadership.

Explain each one in detail and identify circumstances where they are relevant in the workplace and where they are not, giving examples.

3.3 Analyse the impact of different leadership styles on leading and communicating within teams

Considering:

Leadership and communication:

  • Transactional analysis – Eric Byrne
  • Emotional Intelligence – Daniel Goleman

Evidence required:

Research two models of leadership and communication.

Identify examples where the different leadership types could have positive or negative impact on teams and communication within them.

Justify the views reached.

3.4 Analyse the benefits and drawbacks of different types of communication network

Considering:

Communication networks:

  • Information flow
  • Impact on task achievement
  • Impact on interpersonal skills
  • Influence of organisational structure, culture and practice

Evidence required:

Explain different communication networks in terms of:

•           information flow

•           the influence of organisational structure, culture and practice on the network

•           the impact on task achievement and interpersonal skills.

Research examples of different communication networks and identify how the bullet points above had benefitted or disadvantaged the organisation.

4 Understand the factors that contribute to successful team development and performance

4.1 Analyse the nature and importance of teamwork for an organisation

Considering:

Stages of team development:

  • Tuckman‘s teambuilding model
  • Relationship to leadership styles
  • Relationship to motivation and morale
  • Relationship to delegation and empowerment - Tannenbaum and Schmidt

Evidence required:

4.1 Review the stages of team development including:

•           team building models

•           the relationship to leadership styles

•           the relationship to motivation and morale

•           the relationship to delegation and empowerment.

Research examples of how teamwork has affected an organisation. 

Identify the types of affect and how significant they are.

Justify your findings.

4.2 Identify the stages of group development and the factors influencing effective team performance

&

4.3 Describe the characteristics of team effectiveness

&

4.4 Evaluate the relationship between different group roles and effective team performance

Considering:

Team v group:

  • Team roles – Belbin
  • Team competences
  • Team leadership
  • Team objectives
  • Individuals and teams – John Adair

Evidence required:

4.2 Outline the difference between teams and groups.

Outline the team roles as identified by Belbin.

Describe the nature of team leadership and team objectives.

Explain the roles of teams and individuals as identified by John Adair.

Use the outcomes for the above investigations to identify the stages involved in group development and the issues which may affect how well a team performs.

4.3 Describe at least four characteristics of team effectiveness and include supporting examples.

4.4 Research the relationship between different group roles and effective team performance.

Evaluate the relationship as it applies to your own organisation.

Justify your reasons and develop a final conclusion.

5 Understand problem-solving and conflict resolution when managing people

5.1 Explain the potential for conflict caused by different stakeholders` objectives

Considering:

Stakeholder:

  • Objectives
  • Analysis
  • Management

Evidence required:

Identify at least five different stakeholders within own institution and describe the nature of their objectives.

Explain how the different objectives could result in conflict between stakeholders and the organisation.

5.2 Outline different approaches for dealing with conflict within teams and between individuals

Considering:

Cause of workplace conflict

Conflict management

Evidence required:

Outline at least four approaches for dealing with conflict within teams and between individuals, using examples as supporting evidence.

5.3 Evaluate problem-solving and interpersonal skills needed to manage people

Considering:

People management

Management functions

Interpersonal skills

Problem solving techniques:

  • Team involvement
  • Effective communication
  • Structured approach
  • Negative and positive outcomes of decision making

Evidence required:

Research the problem-solving and interpersonal skills required to successfully manage people.

Justify the outcome of your research through the use of examples.

Use two examples of how interpersonal and problem-solving skills have supported people management within your own organisation.

Provide your conclusions justifying your decisions.

5.4 Outline Mintzberg`s decisional roles

Considering:

Mintzberg

  • on Management
  • Management roles
  • Leadership

Evidence required:

Outline Mintzberg’s decision roles and use examples to support your ideas.


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